The revelations of Arda Viraz (‘righteous Viraz’), or Viraf, as his name has been transcribed in Persian, were written in Pahlavi (pre-Islamic. The Main Argument is Revolved around Arda Wiraz Namag. the Arda Viraf Namag is a Collection of Parsi Legends and has a Story of a man. And as the two oldest and most valuable MSS. of the Arda Viraf namak are in Europe, the one being- deposited in the Uni- versity Library al Copenhagen (Xo.
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First, the modern MSS.
The duties of the seven Ameshaspends, in Pahlavi. Pavan zak-i fratum lelya, li val padirak bara mad Srosh-yashariibo, va Ataro yedato; 3 afasli val li nasadman yedrund homaudva guft 4 aigh: Biraf are so thoroughly Zoroastrian that only a professor of that zrda can have seen them. The chief difficulty, however, in transliterating a finalarises in those cases where it seems to be an optional finaleither addedor omitted, by the writer, without any apparent reason, but according to some vague rule which practically divides the MSS.
I also saw the souls of a man and a woman 2 whose tongues were put out, and ever gnawed by the jaws of serpents.
J Afam hhadUund ruhdno-i gabra-I 2 muu, pavan shanak-i asmt? Denman gabrd maman vanas kard, mun rCihund angun giran padafras yedruned? Den- man luban-i arra wm;z, pavan stih, jinak va khan-2 kaiiivanikan, ra aspanj va jinak va tanur barijano la yehabimd; G va mun yeha- bund mozd minash yansegund.
The final a is sometimes substituted for a finalchiefly in modern MSS. I also saw the soul of a man 2 who was suspended by one leg in the darkness of hell [or hell of darkness]; 3 and he had an iron sickle in his hand, and ever gashed his own chest and armpits [or loins], 4 and an iron spike was driven into his eye. Of these two ceremonies, the Darun is considered the more important.
This also, afterwards, the disciples of Zaratusht kept in use, till the overthrow of the monarchy of Iran. He also directed thus: Those who are not able ‘to cross over, are vkraf for whom, after their departure, much lamen- ‘tation and weeping were made; 10 and those who cross more easily, ‘are those for whom less was made. The same as G in He.
Full text of “The book of Arda Viraf”
Then they arose and per- formed their design and went away. C””lIiD ‘Egypt’, and alludes to the fact that Alexander came from Egypt to complete the overtlirow of the Persian empire. Afterwards, aeYen sisters, the seven wives of Arda Viraf as all of them were his wives, and had learnt the religion by heart, and recited the prayersAvhen they heard those tidings, they were as grievous to them as if they had come upon them most severely ; and they went before king Gushtasp aud the other Mazdayasnians, and bowed and stood upon their feet, and they spoke thus: His Sans, yat nirilishya vilokya vaishvdnaro hatah.
Virat account is chiefly taken up with a catalogue of the punishments of the damned in hell and of the rewards of the just in heaven. Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mim ru- ban dngun padafras yedrunod?
The Book of Arda Viraf: A Dantesque Vision of Heaven and Hell
It contains the series of Pahlavi works commonly known to the desturs as the ‘greater Bundehesh’, in two volumes, large octavo, comprising, respectively, 17 and 13 clastak, jCizu, or bundles, of eight folios each, written 17 lines to the page, except the last 5 folios of the first volume, and the last 32 of the voraf, which are written closer.
Turning to the accounts given by classical writers, we find from Diodorus 17,72 and Curtius 5, 7that Alexander really did burn the citadel and royal palace at Persepolis, in a drunken frolic, at the instigation of the Athenian courtezan Thais, and in revenge for the destruction of Greek temples by Xerxes; Arrian Exped.
This is the next-of-kin marriage, which was in ancient times contracted not only between cousins, but between brothers and sistersand fathers and daughters arsa pag. We may thus divide all the crimes and sins which are mentioned, into two principal classes, viz. No ciraf or quizzes yet. I also saw souls who were thrown under the feet of cattle, 2 struck by the horns, and their bellies torn, and bones broken; and they were groaning. The introductory chapter indicates a date after the Arab conquest and was apparently written in Pars.
Ma kuned shunia Mazdayasna in thesh, 36 chi ema haft zan khvaliar horn, 6i yake kliasbma ; 37 har liaft zan khvahar khvashm dad jani horn; 38 cliuu khvanae ke haft freshwi, 39 esha frespa shtunae azher ailda kard eshtad, 40 ka a shtun be shtanend, esha haft frespa be ofteud.
The Book of Arda Viraf: A Dantesque Vision of Heaven and Hell by Charles Francis Horne
Rules regarding the Dron ceremonial, in Pahlavi; being the conclusion of article 7 in He. The name Marspend in ch. These ambiguities also occur in Pahlavi ; but in addition to these, there is a special practical difficulty of distinguishing between the Sasanian 1. It is doubtful whether the recapitulation of the Nasks refers to the whole of them, or only a portion; but it means, probably, only a recital of their general contents, as it can scarcely be supposed that all the Nasks were extant, in their entiretj’, in the time of Arda Viraf.
Yemaleluned Srosh-yasharubo, va Ataro ycdato, 6 aigh: Joseph Regenstein Library Shelving Location: In the third dawn, that soul of the pious departed into the sweet scent of trees; 16 and he considered that scent which passed by his nose among the living; 17 and the air of that fragrance comes from the more southern side, from the direction of God.
This ritual was recited in order to avert any evil influence which might do harm to Arda Viraf, on his journey to the other world.
Sanvat varsJie Chaitras’udi 13 hhaume navma Arddd- Viraya-ndma pustakam ervada-Rdmena crvada-Kdmdina-sutena sim- dareaa samddhdnena likhitam: This is the text translated by Anquetil, and differs in arrangement from that in He, besides supplying the extra matter contained in Anquetil’s ch.
I also saw the soul of a woman 2 who ever chewed with her teeth, and ever ate, her own dead refuse. Arddd Virdya vachastatra shushrdva, vapushcha vilokiiun na shakto hahhCiva, tejonidhih drishfan, tanu na drishtan; jdnubhydm anfah vinamat prand- mau chakre ‘ham, avochacha: Sans, dirghamitrah ; Dest. Lxi Gathas to protect him on his perilous journey.
When I wished to offer homage before Ohrmazd. During- the preparation of this work, 1 have receiv: Hang’s collection, an incomplete octavo MS. Denman tanu maman vanas kard, mun ru- bdno angun giran padafras yedruned? Den- man jinak kadam?