Eperythrocytic parasites previously known as Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon Mycoplasma haemocanis (formerly Haemobartonella canis) “ Candidatus. Mycoplasma haemocanis is a hemotrophic mycoplasma (hemoplasma), blood pathogen that may cause acute disease in immunosuppressed. Haemobartonellosis in dogs is caused by Mycoplasma haemocanis, formerly known as Haemobartonella canis. Mycoplasma haemocanis is not a typical.

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The large and small forms of Haemobartonella felis are gram-negative, epicellular parasite of feline erythrocytes. The organisms are classified as mycoplasmas. The new name for the large form Ohio isolate is Mycoplasma haemofelis.

The proposed name for the small form California isolate Candidatus “Mycoplasma haemominutum”. In at least two studies of experimentally infected cats, M. Cats with chronic M. It was recently shown that naturally infected cats and fleas can be infected by M.

In addition, cats with experimentally induced M. We have just shown fleas to be competent vectors for M. Hemoplasmas have been hadmobartonella experimentally by IV, IP, and oral inoculation of blood.

Clinically ill haemobartoonella can infect kittens; whether transmission occurs in utero, during parturition, or from nursing has not been determined. Transmission by biting has been hypothesized.

Red blood cell destruction is due primarily to immune-mediated events; direct injury to red blood cells induced by the organism is minimal. Clinical signs of disease depend on the degree of anemia, the stage of infection, and the immune status of infected cats. It appears that M. Clinical hasmobartonella and physical examination abnormalities associated with anemia are most common and include pale mucous membranes, depression, inappetence, weakness, and occasionally, icterus and splenomegaly.

Fever occurs in some acutely infected cats and may be intermittent in chronically infected cats.

Evidence of coexisting disease may be present. Weight loss is common in chronically infected cats.

Haemobartonella canis infection in research dogs.

Cats in the chronic phase can be subclinically infected only to have recurrence of clinical disease following periods of stress. A greater percentage of cats with fever are infected with M.

The anemia associated fanis Mycoplasma spp. Chronic non-regenerative anemia is unusual in Mycoplasma spp. Neutrophilia and monocytosis have been reported in some Mycoplasma spp.


Diagnosis is based on demonstration of the organism on the surface of erythrocytes on examination of a thin blood film or polymerase chain reaction PCR. The organism may be difficult to find cytologically, particularly in the chronic phase. Thus, the PCR is the test of choice due to sensitivity.

Jensen et al Since hemoplasmosis and primary immune hemolytic anemia are difficult to differentiate, cats with severe, regenerative hemolytic anemia should be treated with glucocorticoids and antibiotics.

Doxycycline has less side effects than other tetracyclines in cats and so is preferred. If administered for 28 days, more cats appear to stay persistently PCR negative.

Generic tablets have been associated with esophageal strictures and should be liquefied or water should haemohartonella given after pilling. Butter can also be coated on the tablet or rubbed on the nasal planum after pilling.

Haemobartonella canis infection in research dogs.

Tetracyclines utilized to date appear to lessen parasitemia and clinical signs of disease but probably do not clear the organism from the body. In one study, experimentally infected cats treated with doxycycline have apparent clinical response but the organism could still be detected by PCR when the cats were given methylprednisolone acetate. In cats intolerant of doxycycline, enrofloxacin should be considered.

It is currently unknown whether other quinolones are effective. Azithromycin was not effective for the treatment of hemoplasmosis in one study Westfall et al Blood transfusion should be given if clinically indicated.

Potential arthropod vectors should be controlled. Cats should be housed indoors to avoid vectors and fighting. Clinic blood donor cats should be screened for Mycoplasma spp.

In a recent national prevalence study, it was shown that 9. Detection of Haemobartonella felis in cats with experimentally induced acute and chronic infections, using a polymerase chain reaction. Am J Vet Res ; Enrofloxacin for treatment of cats experimentally infected with large form Haemobartonella felis. J Am Vet Med Assoc A new blood parasite in British cats. Anemia in a litter of Siamese kittens. J Small Anim Pract ; Flint JC, Moss J. Infectious anemia in cats. J Am Vet Med Assoc ; Feline infectious anemia Clinical aspects.

Feline infectious anemia Experimental cases. Int J Sys Evol Microbiol ; Molecular, clinical, and pathologic comparison of two distinct strains of Haemobartonella felis in domestic cats. Am J Vet Res ;59; Effect of preexisting FeLV or FeLV and feline immunodeficiency virus coinfection on pathogenicity of the small variant of Haemobartonella felis in cats. Risk factors for Haemobartonella felis infection in cats.


Prevalence of Mycoplasma haemofelis and M.

A clinical appraisal of feline infectious anemia and its transmission under natural conditions. Aust Vet J ; Harvey J, Gaskin J. J Am Animal Hosp Assoc ; Hayes H, Priester W. Risk by age, sex, and breed; prior disease; seasonal hafmobartonella mortality.

J Small Anim Pract ;14″ Use of a polymerase chain reaction assay to detect and differentiate two strains cabis Haemobartonella felis in naturally infected cats. Infectious causes of fever in cats. J Vet Int Med ; Imidocarb diproprionate for the treatment of haemobarrtonella haemobartonellosis in cats. Maede Y, Hata R. Studies on feline haemobartonellosis II.

The mechanism of anemia produced by infection Haemobartoella felis. Jpn J Vet Sci ; Sequestration and phagocytosis of Hemobartonella felis in the spleen. Development and evaluation of a PCR-based assay for detection of Haemobartonella felis in cats and differentiation of H.

J Clin Microbiol ; Nash A, Bobade P. Haemobartonella felis infection in cats from the Glasgow area. Proposal to transfer some members of the genera Haemobartonella and Eperythrozoon to the genus Mycoplasma with descriptions of ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemofelis’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemomuris’, ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma haemosuis’ and ‘Candidatus Mycoplasma wenyonii’.

Use of a PCR assay to assess prevalence and risk factors for Mycoplasma haemofelis and haemobartonela Mycoplasma haemominutum’ in cats in acnis United Kingdom.

J Microbiol Methods ; Tasker S, Lappin MR. J Fel Med Surg ;4: Compend Cais Educ Pract Vet ; Hemobartonella felis infection with atypical hematological abnormalities. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc ; Inoculation of two genotypes of Haemobartonella felis California and Ohio variants to induce infection in cats and response to treatment with azithromycin. Attempted transmission of Haemobartonella felis by Ctenocephalides felis.

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