A single infection of pigs with Hyostrongylus rubidus results in a population of adult worms which is limited in numbers, probably as the result of a loss of worms . Although some (eg, Ascarops strongylina, Physocephalus sexalatus) are more obvious grossly, only Hyostrongylus rubidus is considered to be pathologically. Vet Rec. Aug 14;89(7) Hyostrongylus rubidus: the size and structure of worm populations in adult pigs. Connan RM. PMID: ; [ Indexed for.

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Por favor,activa el JavaScript! Sows in herds kept outdoors are especially at risk. They are found worldwide, but incidence varies strongly depending on the region. Very occasionally it can infect calves, sheep and rabbits. Neither dogs nor cats are affected. The disease caused by this worm is called hyostrongylosis.

Infections with Hyostrongylus are often mixed with other gastrointestinal worms e. Predilection site of adult Hyostrongylus rubidus is the stomach. Adult Hyostrongylus rubidus are rather small worms, usually not longer than 10 mm, and have a reddish color because they suck blood. Females are slightly longer than males.

The worms have no external signs of segmentation. They have a tubular digestive system with two openings, the mouth and the anus. They also have a nervous system but no excretory organs and no circulatory systemi. The female ovaries are large and the uteri end in an opening called the vulva. Males have two spicules for attaching to the female during copulation. Hyostrongylus rubidus has a direct life cycle.

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After shedding, the eggs release the larvae in the environment, which develop to infective L3-larvae in about 5 days, better outdoors in humid pastures, than indoors. They are not very resistant to dryness and cool temperatures.

Pigs of anay age become infected after ingesting such larvae, but piglets are usually more exposed and susceptible.

Pig L3: Hyostrongylus rubidus

After ingestion, the larvae burrow in the stomach mucosa and produce nodules where they complete development to adult worms. Afterwards they return to the stomach lumen, mate and start producing eggs.

After repeated infections the sows develop an incomplete immunity, which causes the immature larvae in the nodules to enter hypobiosis, i.

This can also happen in periods of adverse environmental conditions winter, dryness, etc. They resume development and mature to adults during gestation or lactation. This means that egg-shedding rhbidus during lactation and consequently lactating piglets are more at risk of becoming hyowtrongylus. Healthy sows usually recover spontaneously after lactation. The time between infecton and first eggs shed prepatent period is about 3 weeks. This worms affects mainly pigs kept outdoors.

Infections hyostrohgylus adult pigs are usually sub-chronic and cause light or no symptoms at all, appart from reduced weight gains and poor feed utilization.

Nevertheless, larvae in the nodules destroy glandular tissue in the stomach wall. Adult worms suck blood and irritate the stomach wall, which can cause catarrhal gastritis with excessive secretion of mucus, sometimes with ulceration.

Hyostrongylus rubidis – WikiVet English

Massive infections can be fatal for young animals. Loss of appetite, anemia and diarrhea can also occur.


Diagnosis is confirmed by detecting typical strongylid eggs in the feces. Since the eggs are very similar to hyostroongylus of other pig roundworms e. Oesophagostomumfecal cultures that allow Rubjdus to develop are advisable. Post-mortem examination of the stomach reveals nodules in the mucosa and free adult hyosfrongylus visible by the naked eye.

Systematic and thorough removal tubidus all manure and keeping the facilities dry reduces the risk of infection. Since development of eggs to infective L3-larvae takes at least 5 days, removing all manure in shorter intervals can break the life cycle and reduce the infectivity of the environment. Depending on the country most of these anthelmintics are available for oral administration as feed additives or drenches. Levamisole and most macrocyclic lactones are usually also available as injectables.

There are so far no true vaccines against Hyostrongylus rubidus. To learn more about vaccines against parasites of livestock and pets c lick here. Learn more about biological control of worms. You may be interested in an article in this site o n medicinal plants against external and internal parasites. Learn more about parasite resistance and how it develops.

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