# ISOCOSTS AND ISOQUANTS PDF

In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount given total cost of inputs. A line joining tangency points of isoquants and isocosts (with input prices held constant) is called the expansion path. Isoquants: An isoquant (equal quantity) is a curve that shows the combinations of certain inputs such as Labor (L) and Capital (K) that will produce a certain. Class 3 isocosts & isoquants. 1. ISOQUANTS Equal Quantity of Production; 2. MEANING OF ISOQUANTS • Isoquants are the curves, which.

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The chapter examines the theory of production or how firms organize production i. After reading this chapter, you are expected to learn about: Top 14 Peculiarities of Labour Production Economics. In economics an isocost line shows all combinations of inputs which cost the same total amount.

To see this, consider an example. The cost-minimization problem of the firm is to choose an input bundle KL feasible for the output level y that costs as little as possible.

It is also known as the desired rate of factor substitution, i. This equals the ratio of marginal productivity of two inputs. For the two production inputs labour and capital, with fixed unit costs of the inputs, the equation of the isocost line is. A set of isocost lines can be drawn for different levels of factor prices, or different sums of money.

This condition makes sense: By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. To find the idoquants cost combination of inputs to produce a given output, we need to construct such equal cost lines or isocost lines. The slope depends on the prices of factors of iwoquants and the amount of money which the firm spends on the factors. Iso cost line shows various combinations of labour and capital that the firm can buy for a given factor prices.

### Isocost-isoquant analysis | economics |

The marginal rate of technical substitution of labour for capital must be diminishing at the point of equilibrium. A higher isoquant represent lower level of output. All the isocost lines in the diagram have the same slope because the relative prices of labour and capital are the same.

Iso quant is also known as Production indifference curve.

This combinations must be the most efficient ones — i. The iso quant closer to the origin indicates a lower level of output. All these and other various combinations are shown in Fig. This page was last edited on 20 Novemberat Each curve shows the alternative combinations of labour and capital that would produce 8 and 10 units of output, respectively.

A cost-minimizing input bundle is a point on the isoquant for the given y that is on the lowest possible isocost line. The decision to supply an extra unit depends on the marginal cost of producing that unit. The producer must have sufficient capacity to buy necessary factor inputs to be able to reach its desired production level. Views Read View source View history. The focus of this chapter is on the firm.

### Isocost – Wikipedia

He could do so using the combination represented by points A, B or C in Fig. Views Read Edit View history.

The capacity of the producer is shown by his monetary resources, i. An isoquant traces out the combinations of any two inputs which yield the same level of output. Table 1 illustrates, by using hypothetical numbers, seven alternative methods of producing six units of output.

## Isocost-isoquant analysis

It is known as the actual rate of factor substitution, the rate at which the firm can substitute labour by capital in the market place. Suppose, the producer wants to produce six units of output. The long-run production function of a firm involving the usage of two factors, say, capital and labour is represented isoquznts equal-product curve or isoquant.

Isofosts Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The slope of an isoquant gives the marginal rate of technical substitution MKTS defined as the increase in the quantity of one factor that is required to replace a unit decrease in another factor, when output is held constant along any isoquant.

MKTS is, in fact, the ratio of the marginal products of the factors. And isoquant must be convex to the origin. Its slope is given by the ratio of the prices of the two factors. We can see that the shape of isoquant plays an important a role in the production theory as the shape of indifference curve in the consumption theory. The minimum-cost points are A, D isoqquants E.

This page was last modified on 16 Aprilat Production theory is extended to deal with two variable inputs by the introduction of isoquants. For example, the cost would be Rs. Thus at a point of equilibrium marginal physical productivities of the two factors must be equal the ratio of ksocosts prices.

So, like the consumer the producer has also to operate under a budget resource constraint.